Water first needs to be abstracted from a water source, either a river, reservoir or aquifer with an energy consumption associated to abstraction pumping and valve operations.
Water will then undergo a variety of treatment stages specific to the raw water quality to ensure wholesome water for supply to households and businesses. Each treatment stage requires operating energy from mechanical operation of valves, circulation pumping, chemical dosing pumping, to the generation of ozone and an UV light.
Once water is adequately treated it will need to be pumped from the Water Treatment works into the mains supply network at a suitable pressure for households and businesses. Dependant on the location of the treatment works and length of network, this may require booster pump stations as an intermediate stage.
All the water used, entering the sewerage system will then require treatment before it can be returned to a watercourse or body.
It will be transported from a home or business by series pumping stations to the sewerage or waste water treatment facility, before undergoing numerous stages of treatment before eventually being discharged back to the natural environment.
As with drinking water treatment, each stage of the process requires operational energy.
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